萨非王朝时期手稿,了解失落的波斯建筑

萨非王朝时期手稿,了解失落的波斯建筑
Yusuf and Zulaikha (Yusuf pursued by Potiphar's wife), miniature by Behzād, 1488. Image
Yusuf and Zulaikha (Yusuf pursued by Potiphar's wife), miniature by Behzād, 1488. Image

从14世纪到16世纪,伊朗在帖木儿王朝和萨非王朝的统治下见证了发展和富裕。在这一时期,许多清真寺、宫殿和亭阁被委托建造,并被用于宗教活动。然而,这种重要的建筑类型没有多少幸存下来,也缺少历史文本转述当时建筑的丰富性。

剩下的是一些分散的手稿,这些手稿来自《列王纪》和其他著名的插图故事或诗歌,代表了那个时期的价值观和美学。不经意间,这些最初的效果图成为独特而奇妙的伊斯兰建筑的主要记录方式。

"Bahram Gur in the red pavilion" by Nizami, 16th Century Iran - H: 12 13/16 x W: 7 7/8 in. (32.5 x 20 cm). Image via The Walters Art Museum"Yūsuf va Zulaykhā", by the Sufi poet Jāmī. 1580, Iran. Image via The British LibraryCourtesy of the trustees of the British Library. ImageIn the “Building of Al Khawarnak- Khausa” by Nizami, there is a concise representation of bricks with the tiling drawn in different orientations, evoking the entire architectural and construction process. The composition and color balance of the piece reflect the movement in building activity.Courtesy of Noor Art & Architecture Studio+ 11

"Yūsuf va Zulaykhā", by the Sufi poet Jāmī. 1580, Iran. Image via The British Library
"Yūsuf va Zulaykhā", by the Sufi poet Jāmī. 1580, Iran. Image via The British Library

与席卷西方的文艺复兴艺术对空间的精确描述相反,帖木儿和萨非王朝时代的艺术家选择了对现实的风格化反映。尽管他们熟悉写实的视觉表现,即通过线性透视和纵深手法来实现,但他们选择保持插图的二维性。相反,他们创造的重点是伊斯兰艺术的关键元素和物质性,让人类的想象力在对空间的理解中发挥作用。

"Bahram Gur in the red pavilion" by Nizami, 16th Century Iran - H: 12 13/16 x W: 7 7/8 in. (32.5 x 20 cm). Image via The Walters Art Museum
"Bahram Gur in the red pavilion" by Nizami, 16th Century Iran - H: 12 13/16 x W: 7 7/8 in. (32.5 x 20 cm). Image via The Walters Art Museum

在这些小型墨水插图中,创作者们致力于描述建筑构件,但省略任何明确的空间逻辑。他们描绘的是物体的意象,而非写实的呈现。其创造的作品就像表现富丽堂皇的宫殿和清真寺的平面拼贴画。伊斯兰艺术的四个母题在其中呈现:书法、植物图案、几何元素和数字;这些元素增加了空间活力,并暗示了其内部的功能。各种瓷砖图案会指代不同的表面,并暗示建筑室内外的可能布局。

Nightmare of Zahhak (painting, recto; calligraphy, verso), folio from a manuscript of the Shahnama of Firdawsi, 16th Century - folio: 26.9 x 17.4 cm (10 9/16 x 6 7/8 in.). Image Courtesy of Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Friends of the Fogg Art Museum Fund
Nightmare of Zahhak (painting, recto; calligraphy, verso), folio from a manuscript of the Shahnama of Firdawsi, 16th Century - folio: 26.9 x 17.4 cm (10 9/16 x 6 7/8 in.). Image Courtesy of Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Friends of the Fogg Art Museum Fund

这些手稿通常不大于A5,但它们仍然包含可能确实存在于真实建筑中的引人注目的设计元素,如彩色釉面泥砖。效果图是平面的,但通过不同的图案和线性韵律暗示了它所描绘的空间的深度。这种空间手法使观众处于俯视的视角,并创造了一种只有通过想象才能生成的奇特空间。

Courtesy of the trustees of the British Library. ImageIn the “Building of Al Khawarnak- Khausa” by Nizami, there is a concise representation of bricks with the tiling drawn in different orientations, evoking the entire architectural and construction process. The composition and color balance of the piece reflect the movement in building activity.
Courtesy of the trustees of the British Library. ImageIn the “Building of Al Khawarnak- Khausa” by Nizami, there is a concise representation of bricks with the tiling drawn in different orientations, evoking the entire architectural and construction process. The composition and color balance of the piece reflect the movement in building activity.

这种艺术文化可能也影响了如今伊朗独特的效果图,无论设计师是否有能力让一切都变成现实,都表现出为人们留下思考空间的关注。

译者:纪宏飞

Courtesy of Noor Art & Architecture Studio
Courtesy of Noor Art & Architecture Studio

本文源自 ArchDaily 四月主题:建筑渲染,由Enscape为您呈现。Enscape是Revit,SketchUp,Rhino,Archicad和Vectorworks中最直观的实时渲染和虚拟现实插件。Enscape可以直接置入你的建模软件中,赋予你一套完整的可视化和设计工作流。了解更多关于我们每月主题的内容。ArchDaily一如既往地欢迎读者的贡献;如果你希望提交一篇文章或项目,请联系我们

图片库

查看全部显示较少
关于这位作者
引用: Abdel, Hana. "萨非王朝时期手稿,了解失落的波斯建筑" [Looking into Lost Persian Architecture through Safavid Manuscripts] 10 6月 2021. ArchDaily. (Trans. Milly Mo) Accesed . <https://www.archdaily.cn/cn/962975/sa-fei-wang-zhao-shi-qi-shou-gao-liao-jie-shi-luo-de-bo-si-jian-zhu>

您已开始关注第一个帐户了!

你知道吗?

您现在将根据您所关注的内容收到更新!个性化您的 stream 并开始关注您最喜欢的作者,办公室和用户.