椅子、床和沙发的进化史

椅子、床和沙发的进化史

证据表明,家具的使用可以追溯到新石器时期,它已经成为了生活中不可或缺的部分。那么家具在漫长的历史中是如何变化和发展的?从稀有奢侈的古埃及家具,到强调功能性和流线型设计的包豪斯家具,以下由Angie's List制作的动图,带你领略家具设计的精彩变革。

1. 椅子

我们现今理解的家具在古埃及时代非常罕见。大多数普通人使用编织篮来储存他们为数不多的物品财产,而这个篮子就放在地毯或毛毯上面。在那个时候,家具仅是有权势和财力的人的奢侈品。1919至1933年间,包豪斯运动彻底地重新定义了家具设计。我们在现今的家具中所见到的清晰的线条,就是由这个颇具影响力的德国设计工坊确立的。包豪斯反对不必要的风格的偏好,取而代之的是强调功能、运用中性色以及清楚的几何形式。

2. 餐桌椅

在18世纪早期的巴黎,富绅抗拒皇室流行的严肃的巴洛克样式,而是寻求一种更有趣的设计。富有生气的新的洛可可的样式倾向于使用密集的装饰,流畅的线条,以及柔和的颜色。而相对的另一个极端则是极简主义风格,它拒绝过去一切奢华的风格。以极少的材料和清晰的线条制作,极简主义从1960年代纽约的艺术情景中衍生出来。无论是家具或是居家用品,极简主义遵从少即是多的原则。

3. 沙发

古希腊人并没有太多家具的形式,但他们有非常精细的工艺技术。以前希腊的沙发被称作“Kline”,最初被用作吃饭时供人们倚靠的家具。

20世纪中叶则注重功能性、优美性的形态和简洁性。这个时期的家具通常只由两种材料组成,例如多彩的纤维与鲜亮的木材。这种风格的家具作批量生产,设计旨在让一般的居民可以负担。这使这种家具广受欢迎。

4. 桌子

中世纪的家具有极高的可识别性,它有着繁复的木刻及刻板的形象。你在这个时期的家具上少见曲折的线条或圆环形式,一切都是方形或矩形的。与之相反的是,有机设计则带来了自然的圆滑的形式。这个设计运动以美国建筑师、室内设计师弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特(Frank Lloyd Wright)为领袖,他坚持创造人与自然之间的和谐。有机设计基本采取自然的材料,维持人为介入与自然世界的完美平衡。

5. 床

文艺复兴时的家具受到了过去古典时期艺术品的很大影响。在15世纪末,贸易为意大利带来了大量的财富,日益增长的资本家群体对高质量的家具提出要求。装饰派艺术(Art Deco)没有从历史中寻找灵感,而是以极尽繁复的方式歌颂1920年代和30年代的现代生活。这个时期的新材料,譬如铬、合成树脂、平板玻璃等,与象牙、红木、漆器结合,创造出经典的家具与建筑。

翻译:庞凌波

来源 :

椅子

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Galuh, S. (2016). 1920 Art Deco Furniture. middleburgarts.org

Musei Italiani. (2018).Organic Design. museiitaliani.org

Morley, M. (2016). A Brief History of Mid-Century Modern Furniture Design. Anothermag.com

Marvel Building. (2018). Minimalist Chairs Concept in Wireframe Design – Gentle Hint Chairs. marvelbuilding.com

Arch Expo. (2018). Emmemobili. Archiexpo.it

餐桌椅

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Real Estate Directories. (2018). Tudor Oak Trestle Table From The Late Medieval Period Circa 1520.realestatedirectories.info

Juliao, D. (2018). Renaissance Furniture: History & Style. study.com

Cupboards And Roses. (2018). Seating. cupboardsandroses.com

Houzz. (2014). Rococo Carved Dining Table. houzz.com

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Decaso. (2018). 18th Century Swedish Period Baroque Oak Library Desk or Center Dining Table. decaso.com

1stdibs. (2018). Organic Dining Table by Valeria Totti, Reclaimed Wood from the Brazilian Amazon. 1stdibs.com

Epoch Furnishings. (2017). Mid Century Modern Danish Style Walnut Dining Set by Lane. epochfurnishings.com

Kitchen Design Ideas. (2018). Fancy Minimalist Dining Table for Kitchen Furniture on home design ideas with minimalist dining table for kitchen furniture. getgold.us

Enzio Designs. (2018). Silvano Extending White High Gloss Contemporary Dining Table & Dalia White Dining Chairs. enziodesigns.co.uk

沙发

Lenka, P. (2007). Wooden Stool from Thebes, Egypt. flickr.com

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Taylor, Fred. (2015). Furniture Specific Renaissance Revival. liveauctioneers.com

1stdibs. (2018) Rococo Revival Antique Carved Walnut Settee Sofa in Louis XV Taste, 19th Century. 1stdibs.com

Taylor, Fred. (2015). Furniture Specific Renaissance Revival. liveauctioneers.com

Nenya. (2018). Victorian Age Furniture Era Sofa Color Palette Inspiration Orange Hues Couch And Patterns Furniture Age Victorian Era Furniture Designers. nenya.me

Belle Atelier. (2018) Art Nouveau Settee. belleatelier.tumblr.com

Zeitlos Berlin. (2018). Bauhaus Couch Bed. zeitlosberlin.com

Postle, L. (2018). Art Deco Furniture. decolish.com

Canvas Contract. (2018). Sofa-SOO-06. canvascontract.com

Imfrom. (2018). Mid-Century Modern Walnut Sofa Danish NoHo 40 Z To. imfrom.me

Tucker, E. (2018). Hyung Suk Cho bases minimal daybed on traditional Korean design and paintings.

dezeen.com

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桌子

Azhary Antiques. (2018). Pharaoh Furniture. azharyantiques.com

I.pinimg. (2018). Originals. i.pinimg.com

Harp gallery. (2017). Italian Renaissance 1900 Antique Library Desk or Dining Table, Marble Top. harpgallery.com

1stdibs. (2018). Painted Venetian Rococo Style Desk and Chair. 1stdibs.com

On Singularity. (2018). Writing Desks for Sale Victorian Desk. onsingularity.com

Wayfair. (2018). Ardnaglass Traditional Dark Oak Executive Desk. wayfair.com

Custom Furniture Doub. (2018). Full size Art Nouveau Desk. customfurniture-doub.com

Pamono. (2018). Chromed Steel & Tinted beech Bauhaus Desk by Petr Vichr for Kovona 1930’s.pamono.com

Art Deco Collection. (2018). Professional Art Deco Desk by Stow Davis, pedestal-base.artdecocollection.com

Woodland Creek Furniture. (2018). Natural Wood Desks. woodlandcreekfurniture.com

Pamono. (2018). Mid-Century Modern Teak Desk. pamono.com

Tardiff, S. (2017). 20 Minimalist Desks that will inspire an organized work space (probably). elledecor.com

Woodland Creek Furniture. (2018). Contemporary Walnut Desk. woodlandcreekfurniture.com

Museam of Fine Arts Boston. (2018). Bed of Queen Hetepheres I (reproduction). mfa.org

Fiorito, J. (2017). History of Furniture: Ancient Greece. fioritointeriordesign.blogspot.com

Ultimate Home Ideas. (2016). 35 Stunning Medieval Furniture Ideas for your Bedroom.ultimatehomeideas.com

Underwood, T. (2012). Italian renaissance Furniture. tiffanyunderwood72213.wordpress.com

Khan Academy. (2016). An Introduction to Decorative Arts at the J Paul Getty Museum. khanacademy.org

Decorium. (2018). Townsford Traditional Bed with Turned Post in Cherry Finish. decorium.us

Christies. (2011). Les Collections du Chateau de Gourdon. christies.com

Warpedeco Home Improvement. (2009). The Bauhaus: Modernism Design Movement. warpedeco.com

Harp Gallery. (2018). Italian 1935 Art Deco King Size Bed & Nightstand, Bedroom Set. harpgallery.com

Urban Outfitters. (2018) Bohemian Platform Bed. urbanoutfitters.com

Pokrzywinski, A. (2011). Stuart Chase Creates Modern Organic Furniture from Reclaimed wood. inhabitat.com

Libertees. (2018). Mid Century Headboard Image Of Homemade Mid Century Modern Bed Mid Century Headboard Queen. libertees.co

Home Designing. (2018). 40 Serenely Minimalist Bedrooms to Help you Embrace Simple Comforts. home-designing.com

Trendir. (2018). These 40 Modern Beds Will Have You Daydreaming of Bedtime. trendir.com

km

其他

Cahill, P. (2016). Furniture Design History. onlinedesignteacher.com

Muscato, C. (2018). Ancient Egyptian Furniture: History & Design. study.com

Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018). Rococo style. britannica.com

Carpenter, W. (2018). Inspired by the roots of Minimalist design. pamono.com

Muscato, C. (2018).Greek Furniture: History & Style. study.com

Musei Italiani. (2018). Organic Design. museiitaliani.org

Juliao, D. (2018). Renaissance Furniture: History & Style. study.com

Przybylek, S. (2018).Art Deco Furniture: History & Style. study.com

Pamono. (2018). Dieter Rams. pamono.com

Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. (2018). Frank Lloyd Wright. franklloydwright.org

关于这位作者
引用: Angie's List. "椅子、床和沙发的进化史" [See How the Design of Chairs, Beds and Sofas Have Evolved Through History] 26 9月 2018. ArchDaily. (Trans. Winnie Wu) Accesed . <https://www.archdaily.cn/cn/902652/yi-zi-chuang-he-sha-fa-de-jin-hua-shi>

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