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聚焦: 弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特 (Frank Lloyd Wright)

聚焦: 弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特 (Frank Lloyd Wright)
© Al Ravenna
© Al Ravenna

在1991年,美国建筑师协会相当简单粗暴地称呼他为“史上最伟大的美国建筑师”。在他的生平,Frank Lloyd Wright(1867.06.08-1959.04.09)完成了超过500个建筑作品,这其中很多都被认为是杰作。受他广泛的作品和在自己创办的学校任职多年的影响,不少年轻人都加入了建筑设计这一行业中,历史上很少有建筑师能超越他,无论是在建筑的影响力上,还是在年轻人的影响力中。他影响了更多年轻人令他们加入到建筑设计这个行业中。

S.C. Johnson and Son Administration Building. Image © Jeff Dean Unity Temple. Image © Sean Marshall Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Image © Flickr user gomattolson licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 Taliesin West. Image © Wikimedia user AndrewHorne licensed under CC BY 3.0 + 25

在独一无二的历史时期——19世纪末期,赖特作为Louis Sullivan (“形式追随功能”)的追随者,他的建筑作品成了连接那个时代传统建筑和20世纪初出现的现代主义的桥梁。他的晚期作品在形式上很现代主义,但是仍然保留了来自之前时期的情怀。

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Image © Flickr user Sam valadi licensed under CC BY 2.0
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Image © Flickr user Sam valadi licensed under CC BY 2.0

在他的许多作品中,Wright 都在追寻对一种典型的美国建筑风格的定义。这种追求也许最清晰的体现在他的住宅作品中:在他职业生涯的早期,Wright 经常被定义为“草原式风格”,比如说在他的罗比住宅(Robie House),以水平的线条和很长却又很低的屋顶为特色,反射了国家的地形景观的特色。后来,这个想法又进化成了他美国风住宅(Usonian Houses)的基础“ Usonian”这个词成为了作家 James Duff Law 在1903年取得最难以令人忘记的名字来区分来自本地的美国人和来自加拿大和拉丁美洲的美国人。在这些设计中,Wright 保留了草原式设计中的低矮水平的线条,但是却融合了现代主义的特色:比如平顶和开放的空间。

Marin Civic Center. Image © Flickr user joevare licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0
Marin Civic Center. Image © Flickr user joevare licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0

Wright 的设计同时也在被使用者对自然生活的追求给推动着,他把他的建筑称作 “有机的”建筑本身和它周围环境的高度和谐,它的存在就如同像一颗树一样自然,却不依靠着生硬的模仿。这个手法可见他著名的流水别墅(Fallingwater house),露台模仿着瀑布下方层层叠叠的岩石,同样也可见他为SC Johnson公司设计的Research Tower中从建筑中间躯干中伸出的地板。他对自然和美国地形景观的喜爱可以从Broadacre City 城市规划设计中提出的蔓延开的牧场般的景观和极低的人口密度中体现出来。

Unity Temple. Image © Sean Marshall
Unity Temple. Image © Sean Marshall

对于很多人来说,Wright 就是对建筑师典型的幻想:他展现出来的是一个孤独的天才,挑剔着设计中任何一个极其微小的细节,并且拥有相当傲慢的个性。但是无法否认他的设计视野,还有他那些永恒的建筑设计一次又一次得揭示了他令人叹服的设计视角。

点击下方查看更多Frank Lloyd Wright's的作品:

编辑:韩爽     翻译:张安淇

流水别墅. 图片 © Western Pennsylvania Conservancy S.C. Johnson and Son Administration Building. Image © Jeff Dean Unity Temple. Image © Sean Marshall Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Image © Flickr user gomattolson licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 Taliesin West. Image © Wikimedia user AndrewHorne licensed under CC BY 3.0 流水别墅. 图片 © Western Pennsylvania Conservancy Frederick C. Robie House. Image © Nat Hansen Willey House. Image Courtesy of Willey House Website R.W. Lindholm Service Station. Image Courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society Price Tower. Image © Flickr user alaig licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Wingspread. Image © Galen Frysinger Wingspread. Image © Galen Frysinger SC Johnson Wax Research Tower. Image © SC Johnson SC Johnson Wax Research Tower. Image © SC Johnson Frederick C. Robie House. Image © Nat Hansen David Wright House. Image © Wikimedia user Lockley (public domain) Marin Civic Center. Image © Flickr user joevare licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0 Marin Civic Center. Image © Flickr user peterhess licensed under CC BY 2.0 Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Image © Flickr user Sam valadi licensed under CC BY 2.0 Ennis House. Image © Wikimedia user Mike Dillon licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 Marin Civic Center. Image © Flickr user jesseganes licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0 Taliesin West. Image © Wikimedia user Steven C. Price licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 Westcott House. Image © Wikimedia user RRaphael licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 David Wright House. Image © Flickr user dcrummey licensed under CC BY 2.0 + 25

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关于这位作者
引用: Stott, Rory. "聚焦: 弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特 (Frank Lloyd Wright)" [Spotlight: Frank Lloyd Wright] 07 6月 2017. ArchDaily. (Trans. 韩爽) Accesed . <https://www.archdaily.cn/cn/872554/ju-jiao-frank-lloyd-wrightlai-te>

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