2019阿卡汗获奖作品,350多个公共空间

2019阿卡汗获奖作品,350多个公共空间

不同于首都莫斯科大手笔的公园绿地规划,鞑靼斯坦(Tatarstan)的出发点在于“授人以渔”,重振本土设计与制造产业。

鞑靼斯坦共和国位于俄罗斯境内欧洲与亚洲的交接处。长久以来,两种截然不同的设计方法——引进外来专家和培养本地社区设计,也就是我们常说的“授人以鱼”还是“授人以渔”——在这个没有既定设计权威的地方相互碰撞,描画出今日所呈现的城市图景。近期的公共空间开发项目正是得益于后者,五年内为鞑靼斯坦新添了超过350个公园。

Children's play structure in Gorkinsko-Ometevsky forest, near Kazan. Image Courtesy of Foundation Institute for Urban Development of the Republic of TatarstanKaban Lake embankment. Image Courtesy of Foundation Institute for Urban Development of the Republic of TatarstanAn embankment on Kaban Lake in Kazan, Tatarstan’s capital city. Kaban consists of three lakes stretching north to south, with connected ducts. These are the largest in area in Tatarstan. The concept of this project was based on the creation of a single Kaban Lakes Water Park, uniting the three lakes’ embankments.. Image Courtesy of Foundation Institute for Urban Development of the Republic of TatarstanCity Lake beach in Almetyevsk, a city of 156,000 about four hours southeast of Kazan. The city had lacked a comfortable outdoor area, prompting its inner-city lake to be cleaned and its shoreline redeveloped. A wooden path lines the water and strings together facilities like a fitness pavilion, open-air pool, sauna, playground, boat house, and more.. Image Courtesy of Foundation Institute for Urban Development of the Republic of Tatarstan+ 12

项目由29岁的 Natalia Fishman-Bekmambetova 主持设计,荣列2019 阿卡汗建筑奖六个获奖项目之一。设计师在2015年担任莫斯科高尔基公园(Gorky Park)翻新项目顾问期间吸引了鞑靼斯坦共和国总统的注意,将近五年的时间里,该项目在社区参与方面作出的尝试重新规范了国内的设计流程。

City Lake beach in Almetyevsk, a city of 156,000 about four hours southeast of Kazan. The city had lacked a comfortable outdoor area, prompting its inner-city lake to be cleaned and its shoreline redeveloped. A wooden path lines the water and strings together facilities like a fitness pavilion, open-air pool, sauna, playground, boat house, and more.. Image Courtesy of Foundation Institute for Urban Development of the Republic of Tatarstan
City Lake beach in Almetyevsk, a city of 156,000 about four hours southeast of Kazan. The city had lacked a comfortable outdoor area, prompting its inner-city lake to be cleaned and its shoreline redeveloped. A wooden path lines the water and strings together facilities like a fitness pavilion, open-air pool, sauna, playground, boat house, and more.. Image Courtesy of Foundation Institute for Urban Development of the Republic of Tatarstan

Fishman-Bekmambetova 宣称:“我们成功创立了全新的国—民关系模型,让人民成为事实上的委托人,公众参与降低了项目失败的几率。”

让人啼笑皆非的是,2015年项目刚一启动就以失败打头阵:Fishman-Bekmambetova 的团队误伐了首都喀山公园里一棵当地人钟爱的百年垂柳,惹得哀声载道。好在团队积极从错误中吸取教训,通过咨询和研讨会的方式听取公众反馈。如今,公众参与已成为所有俄罗斯城市公共空间开发项目获取联邦政府资助的强制性程序。

Children's play structure in Gorkinsko-Ometevsky forest, near Kazan. Image Courtesy of Foundation Institute for Urban Development of the Republic of Tatarstan
Children's play structure in Gorkinsko-Ometevsky forest, near Kazan. Image Courtesy of Foundation Institute for Urban Development of the Republic of Tatarstan

项目总计在喀山建成了约28个城市公共空间,更有300多个公共空间分散在共和国各个城市乡镇之中。更令人印象深刻的是,整个项目开展耗资仅占由 DS+R 设计的莫斯科 Zaryadye 公园 的一半,据报道 Zaryadye 公园项目最终预算达到39.5亿元人民币。Fishman-Bekmambetova 表示:“邀请国外相关行业专业人士开展公共空间设计非常昂贵而低效。”

作为项目的一部分,设计师创立了 ArchDesant 建筑工作室培养本土创意人才,后来发展出十个由平均年龄25岁年轻建筑师领导的独立事务所。这些事务所在公共空间和公园设计领域具备专业的知识和技术,他们中的一些人领导了全国各地的公园设计项目,如 Project Group 8 设计的喀山白花公园。

An embankment on Kaban Lake in Kazan, Tatarstan’s capital city. Kaban consists of three lakes stretching north to south, with connected ducts. These are the largest in area in Tatarstan. The concept of this project was based on the creation of a single Kaban Lakes Water Park, uniting the three lakes’ embankments.. Image Courtesy of Foundation Institute for Urban Development of the Republic of Tatarstan
An embankment on Kaban Lake in Kazan, Tatarstan’s capital city. Kaban consists of three lakes stretching north to south, with connected ducts. These are the largest in area in Tatarstan. The concept of this project was based on the creation of a single Kaban Lakes Water Park, uniting the three lakes’ embankments.. Image Courtesy of Foundation Institute for Urban Development of the Republic of Tatarstan

“忠于本土”并不止于建筑师群体,项目设计理念同时激活了当地制造业,从当时硕果仅存的制造商扩充到现在将近40家企业,更通过本地取材一举多得地消减了进口成本和碳排放。

项目的影响远超出环境层面——如 ArchDesant 在 Laishevo 小镇设计的占地9公顷的景观沙滩是俄罗斯仅有的四处方便残疾人使用的沙滩之一,值得一提的是这四处中有两处在鞑靼斯坦共和国境内;又如在 Tyulyachi 小镇搭建的木质步行桥保证了当地学生在洪峰季节的安全通行。

Kaban Lake embankment, Kazan. The embankment comprises a set of water gardens using phyto-filtration, which relies on the natural processes of plants and microorganisms to clean various hazards and toxins in water and sediment.. Image Courtesy of Foundation Institute for Urban Development of the Republic of Tatarstan
Kaban Lake embankment, Kazan. The embankment comprises a set of water gardens using phyto-filtration, which relies on the natural processes of plants and microorganisms to clean various hazards and toxins in water and sediment.. Image Courtesy of Foundation Institute for Urban Development of the Republic of Tatarstan

喀山 Gorkinskо-Ometyevsky 森林修复项目落成后,周边房地产价格上涨了百分之十七。Fishman-Bekmambetova 认为:“项目带来的经济效益对私人开发商投资公共空间建设有趋化作用。”尽管如此,项目资金主要来自鞑靼斯坦共和国政府、石油化工企业和小型企业,2017年起俄罗斯联邦政府也开始对该项目投入资金支持。

在项目创造的诸多公园当中,其核心设计元素贯彻始终:景观堤岸、公共艺术委托、当代儿童运动场和文化展馆。但最重要的是,公共空间开发项目一反早期苏联时代的私有化趋势,展示了重新聚焦朴实、高品质公共空间的姗姗来迟的雄心。

原文发表Metropolismag.com
翻译:付惠遥

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引用: Elissaveta M. Brandon. "2019阿卡汗获奖作品,350多个公共空间" [A Russian Parks Program Creates Over 350 Public Spaces and Nurtures Local Design Talent] 17 2月 2020. ArchDaily. (Trans. Milly Mo) Accesed . <https://www.archdaily.cn/cn/933672/2019a-qia-han-huo-jiang-zuo-pin-350duo-ge-gong-gong-kong-jian-pei-yu-e-luo-si-ben-tu-she-ji-li-liang>

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