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  3. 纽约市长拟在2026年前提供30万户经济用房,计划书有哪些看点?

纽约市长拟在2026年前提供30万户经济用房,计划书有哪些看点?

纽约市长拟在2026年前提供30万户经济用房,计划书有哪些看点?
纽约市长拟在2026年前提供30万户经济用房,计划书有哪些看点?, Broadway Housing in Santa Monica, by Kevin Daly, was identified by the report as a case study for its circulation. Image © Iwan Baan
Broadway Housing in Santa Monica, by Kevin Daly, was identified by the report as a case study for its circulation. Image © Iwan Baan

当我们想到美国的公共住房建筑时,往往会想到盒子:没有太多美学特征的大型砖石建筑。不过对居住者而言,标准化的配有荧光照明的高楼带来的影响远远超越了一般的美学价值。举个例子,地理学者 Rashad Shabazz 在他名为 “Spatializing Blackness” 的书中回忆说,他在芝加哥的一栋住房里长大,房子被链式栅栏围住,视频监控和金属探测器无处不在,那种感觉更像是监狱而不是家。来自全国各地的居住在公共住房中的居民纷纷反映了居住环境隔离,限制重重和维护不善等情况。

但美国的公共住房不一定非得如此荒凉。纽约市公共设计委员会 (New York City Public Design Commission/PDC) 纽约美术联合会 (The Fine Arts Federation of New York) 以及 美国建筑师学会纽约分会 (American Institute of Architects New York Chapter) 联合制定了一套新设计标准,希望能够翻开经济适用住房建筑的新篇章。

Step Up on Fifth in Santa Monica, by Brooks + Scarpa, was identified by the report as a case study for its windows and doors. Image Courtesy of Brooks + Scarpa The Navy Green development in Brooklyn was a key case study in the report. Here, the supportive housing from that development, designed by Architecture in Formation and Curtis + Ginsburg. Image © Tom Powel Imaging The Tetris Apartments in Ljubljana, by OFIS Arhitekti, were identified by the report as a case study for their massing. Image Courtesy of OFIS Arhitekti Creston Avenue Residence in the Bronx. Image Courtesy of MAP Architects + 16

The Richardson Apartments in San Francisco, by David Baker + Partners, were identified by the report as a case study in materiality. Image © Bruce Damonte
The Richardson Apartments in San Francisco, by David Baker + Partners, were identified by the report as a case study in materiality. Image © Bruce Damonte

本月早先发布的“纽约设计:优质经济适用房 (Designing New York: Quality Affordable Housing)” 讨论了规划经济适用房的最佳实践,并提供了纽约已经建成并获得成功的经济适用房项目的案例研究,其中许多项目都是由 EnneadSHoP 建筑事务等知名公司设计的。作为“纽约市各机构及其申请人寻求经济适用房设计指导意见的参考资料”,该文件用语平实简洁,非专业设计人士也能看懂,文件已公开发布,目的是使“公民和社区组织在其社区的经济适用房项目中能获得卓越的设计。”

The Navy Green development in Brooklyn was a key case study in the report. Here, the supportive housing from that development, designed by Architecture in Formation and Curtis + Ginsburg. Image © Tom Powel Imaging
The Navy Green development in Brooklyn was a key case study in the report. Here, the supportive housing from that development, designed by Architecture in Formation and Curtis + Ginsburg. Image © Tom Powel Imaging

在这份文件发布的6个月前,即2017年11月,Bill de Blasio 市长宣布他将在2026年前建造并维护30万套经济适用房。他的计划—一个计划提前完成的2014年规划的升级版—是打算将“将180,000套现有公寓改造成经济适用房,并建造120,000套新的经济适用房。”

纽约新经济适用房设计指南会给即将设计这些新住房的建筑师提供不少设计线索,当然,它对全球的建筑师也具有指导意义。以下是《设计纽约》的一些关键内容:

Creston Avenue Residence in the Bronx. Image Courtesy of MAP Architects
Creston Avenue Residence in the Bronx. Image Courtesy of MAP Architects

1.  体量创新,尊重规模

没有偏向于近几十年来在美国公共住房领域占据主导地位的大型高楼,设计纽约一文建议突破建筑的体量限制,建造富有单元变化和分区创新的建筑。布朗克斯(Bronx)的克雷斯顿大道住宅(Creston Avenue Residence)使用非常规的体量来配合社区规模(主要是五层公寓建筑),以便能提供最多的住宅单元。在 Magnusson Architecture & Planning 设计的这个项目中,街道正面“与相邻的老式住宅保持一致,并与自身的小规模相适应,而中间部分则用金属板覆盖,向内后退形成一个统一的有遮蔽的入口。”

Creston Avenue Residence in the Bronx. Image Courtesy of MAP Architects
Creston Avenue Residence in the Bronx. Image Courtesy of MAP Architects
The Richardson Apartments in San Francisco, by David Baker + Partners, were identified by the report as a case study in materiality. Image © Bruce Damonte
The Richardson Apartments in San Francisco, by David Baker + Partners, were identified by the report as a case study in materiality. Image © Bruce Damonte

2. 服务设施造福社区

如果低收入社区缺乏能提供健康选择的超市和体育活动场所(如公园和体育馆),可以在设计公众住房时有意识地加入这类服务空间,从而改善居民的健康状况。在布朗克斯(Bronx) Morrisania社区的Arbor House,楼梯间设计得很宽敞,又有充足的自然光照,这是为了鼓励居民多使用楼梯。屋顶的水培花园则满足了居民的生产需求。

Step Up on Fifth in Santa Monica, by Brooks + Scarpa, was identified by the report as a case study for its windows and doors. Image Courtesy of Brooks + Scarpa
Step Up on Fifth in Santa Monica, by Brooks + Scarpa, was identified by the report as a case study for its windows and doors. Image Courtesy of Brooks + Scarpa
Creston Avenue Residence in the Bronx. Image Courtesy of MAP Architects
Creston Avenue Residence in the Bronx. Image Courtesy of MAP Architects

3. 经济适用不是贬义

公共住房与商品房之间的区别往往会通过明显可见的结构差别来表现。当经济适用房被贴上贬义的标签时,居民可能会感受到来自其他社区的贬低或排斥。创新型经济适用房的倡导者蓝海开发公司 (Blue Sea Development Company) 的联合创始人Les Bluestone表示:“设计能发挥的最佳作用是不去定义经济适用房,任何远离这种做法的事情都对社区有好处。”

Broadway Housing in Santa Monica, by Kevin Daly, was identified by the report as a case study for its circulation. Image © Iwan Baan
Broadway Housing in Santa Monica, by Kevin Daly, was identified by the report as a case study for its circulation. Image © Iwan Baan

4. 以结构创新克服场地困难

纽约这样不断向外拓展的城市,许多新经济适用房项目都处在特殊的地段。例如,位于布鲁克林(Brooklyn)威廉斯堡(Williamsburg)的弗罗斯特街公寓(Frost Street Apartments)就坐落在具有六个车道的布鲁克林—皇后高速公路附近。为了减轻公寓内的噪音干扰,Curtis + Ginsberg事务所(Curtis + Ginsberg Architects)采用了“带有高性能窗户的重型砖石混凝土结构”。

位于布鲁克林(Brooklyn)Boerum山上的Schermerhorn项目面临同样艰难的条件,它建在两条地铁线之上。设计纽约一文提到,“由于建筑下方有两条地铁线穿行,需要一个桁架悬臂结构,这个结构耗费了绝大部分的建筑预算。”最终,在这样一个艰难的场地,建成了一栋拥有109个单位户的大楼,原本无家可归的流浪者和艾滋病毒携带者得以安家落户。

The Navy Green development in Brooklyn was a key case study in the report. Here, the supportive housing from that development, designed by Architecture in Formation and Curtis + Ginsburg. Image © Tom Powel Imaging
The Navy Green development in Brooklyn was a key case study in the report. Here, the supportive housing from that development, designed by Architecture in Formation and Curtis + Ginsburg. Image © Tom Powel Imaging

5. 绿色建筑不仅仅是可持续性

因为怀念具有地域特色的庭院公寓, Navy Green事务所围绕一个中央庭院设计了各种建筑形式(联排别墅和各种规模的高层建筑),因此,不论住在公寓何处,每一户居民都可以透过窗户呼吸新鲜空气,感受自然光照,享受绿色空间。

Broadway Housing in Santa Monica, by Kevin Daly, was identified by the report as a case study for its circulation. Image © Iwan Baan
Broadway Housing in Santa Monica, by Kevin Daly, was identified by the report as a case study for its circulation. Image © Iwan Baan

6. 设计并不能解决所有问题

设计纽约提供了一种将建筑从限制状态转变成服务社区状态的模式,并且前景看好。不过需要记住的是,纵然设计良好,这些公共住房只能帮助改善纽约市的住房危机,并不能从根本上解决这个问题。纽约市还在艰苦定义它的负担能力,这明显取决于纽约地区的中等收入水平,不过它往往被曲解。住房维护和发展部门(Department of Housing Preservation and Development)因其居民筛选政策在本月受到审查纽约市每天都有大量低收入者被赶出家门,市政府为建造大量新住房付出的努力也都可能无法跟上这种流离失所的速度。

Step Up on Fifth in Santa Monica, by Brooks + Scarpa, was identified by the report as a case study for its windows and doors. Image Courtesy of Brooks + Scarpa
Step Up on Fifth in Santa Monica, by Brooks + Scarpa, was identified by the report as a case study for its windows and doors. Image Courtesy of Brooks + Scarpa

7. 不同的设计方案应对不同城市(和国家)的需求

虽然我们应该赞扬纽约市为低收入居民提供有尊严的住房所做的努力,但建筑历史告诉我们,公共住房不能采用完全照搬的模式。勒·柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)在法国马赛(Marseille, France)的联合住宅(Unité d’habitation)获得成功,模仿它的Pruitt-Igoe住房项目在密苏里州圣路易斯(St. Louis, Missouri)却失败了,这也说明,不同的地区在公共住房方面有着不同的需求。设计纽约意识到这一事实,鼓励住房项目的设计要针对特定地点特定居民。让我们记住,即使弗罗斯特街公寓(Frost Street Apartments)适用于布鲁克林,它们也不应该被照搬到世界其它任何地方。不过,我们从这些关注住宅需求的项目中吸取的教训则是放之四海皆准的。

The Richardson Apartments in San Francisco, by David Baker + Partners, were identified by the report as a case study in materiality. Image © Bruce Damonte
The Richardson Apartments in San Francisco, by David Baker + Partners, were identified by the report as a case study in materiality. Image © Bruce Damonte

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Ella Comberg
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引用: Comberg, Ella. "纽约市长拟在2026年前提供30万户经济用房,计划书有哪些看点?" [7 Lessons from New York's New Affordable Housing Design Guide ] 20 6月 2018. ArchDaily. (Trans. Huimin Zhang) Accesed . <https://www.archdaily.cn/cn/896071/niu-yue-shi-chang-jue-xin-zai-2026nian-qian-ti-gong-30mo-hu-jing-ji-yong-fang-wo-men-ke-yi-xue-dao-shi-yao>

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