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从“剖面手册”学习:最吸引人的建筑图纸

从“剖面手册”学习:最吸引人的建筑图纸

Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki 和 David J. Lewis看来,剖面“通常被理解成一种简化的图纸,诞生于设计过程结束时,用来表现结构和材质状况,便于结构的建造”。这一定义对于多数在建筑领域学习或工作过的人来说,都或多或少并不陌生。我们总是优先考虑平面图,因为它有助于我们考虑项目在功能布置上的期望,也提供了所需的不同功能的概况。在现代,数字建模软件为创造复杂三维形体带来了更多可能性,剖面就更偏向于设计后的图纸了。

在剖面手册的作用下, LTL architects 的三个合伙创始人开始将剖面图作为建筑设计的重要工具,我们得承认,阅读这本书可能会改变你的想法。合著者认为,“通过剖面思考建筑,要求建筑有剖面的对话,认识到它对场地的干预。”或许,的确,我们需要认识到剖面图的能力,有效地使用它并乐于使用。

Bagsværd Church by Jørn Utzon (1976). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects Notre Dame du Haut by Le Corbusier (1954). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects United States Pavilion at Expo '67 by Buckminster Fuller and Shoji Sadao (1967). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum by Frank Lloyd Wright (1959). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects + 15

São Paulo Museum of Art by Lina Bo Bardi (1968). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects
São Paulo Museum of Art by Lina Bo Bardi (1968). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects

这本书的一开始强调了剖面图作为表现工具的独特性。剖面使我们理解建筑的材质,结构和建造逻辑。垂直剖切,再结合人体的表现,能帮助我们确定建筑的尺度和比例。同时也揭示了建筑周围的城市语境(外部),外围和内部结构(剖切部分),室内饰或材质的视觉效果(内部)。作者也提醒读者,剖面图和构造剖面图有助于解决保温,技术和结构问题。

Ford Foundation Headquarters by Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo Associates (1968). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects
Ford Foundation Headquarters by Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo Associates (1968). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects

但文中最吸引人的见解还是作者对剖面图的七种分类,使所有读者都可以批判地使用剖面作为设计工具。分类被“有意简化”,以便于认识并区分他们。 “挤压”, “堆叠”, “形状”, “剪切”, “洞” ,“倾斜” 和 “巢”,每种都强调了不同的设计策略,并以20及21世纪的著名案例放大剖面图为例。此外还有一些混合案例,展示了如何在一栋建筑中结合不同的剖面类型。作者试图在清晰信息充足的案例和更复杂且富有创造性的案例间寻求平衡,最终呈现了关于剖面设计策略的良好概述。

Yale Art and Architecture Building by Paul Rudolph (1963). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects
Yale Art and Architecture Building by Paul Rudolph (1963). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects

有趣的是,读者只能通过剖面来评价每个设计的质量。作者避免了平面图,立面图和效果图的使用,照片的使用也很有限。所有63个项目都以一点透视的形式呈现,并有相同的标准视角和图形表达,为了严谨的建筑(与具象相对)理解。 这反过来使人们关注复杂的结构系统,以及复杂的空间层次和室内外的相互联系。

Notre Dame du Haut by Le Corbusier (1954). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects
Notre Dame du Haut by Le Corbusier (1954). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects

不同项目的选择也值得一提,如路易斯·康萨尔克生物研究中心勒·柯布西耶朗香教堂阿尔瓦·阿尔托的 Seinajoki 图书馆, 约恩·伍重Bagsvaerd 教堂Paul Rudolf的耶鲁艺术建筑学院,而当代的建筑事务所包括 伊东丰雄藤本壮介建筑事务所OMA彼得·卒姆托赫尔佐格与德梅隆MVRDV斯蒂文·霍尔建筑事务所Diller Scofidio + RenfroWeiss/ManfrediBIG等等。作者也对意义重大的历史建筑有所关注,如 Henri Sauvage 的社会住宅项目,和 Starrett & Van Vleck 的市中心运动俱乐部(后来出现在雷姆·库哈斯疯狂纽约中)。

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum by Frank Lloyd Wright (1959). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum by Frank Lloyd Wright (1959). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects

为了表现这些剖面,作者使用了大量文件,来源从历史照片和细部图纸到当代建筑公司的基础图纸。每个剖面都有完整的介绍,如果你注重细节,甚至能在家具中有所发现;不要错过托勒椅和勒·柯布西耶作品中 Charlotte Perriand 的设计。

Taichung Metropolitan Opera House by Toyo Ito & Associates (2016). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects
Taichung Metropolitan Opera House by Toyo Ito & Associates (2016). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects

最后,剖面手册包括一个简短凝练的“剖面史”,将视野投向剖面图的历史发展和最近的使用。文章提到了15世纪早期剖面图的出现 ,介绍了剖面图如何作为描述罗马废墟的“分析手段”而第一次出现。后来剖面图才渐渐成为了建筑实践中的“生产工具”, 在帕拉弟奥, Etienne-Louis BoulléeEugène Viollet-le-Duc的作品中。

United States Pavilion at Expo '67 by Buckminster Fuller and Shoji Sadao (1967). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects
United States Pavilion at Expo '67 by Buckminster Fuller and Shoji Sadao (1967). Published in Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image © LTL Architects

正如历史所显示的,剖面图总是首先被看作表达工具,它对于建筑语言的输入依然很大程度上被埋没。 剖面手册成功地将剖面引入了理论论述;成为了建筑师新的参考书。

普林斯顿建筑出版社出版的 Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki和 David J. Lewis合著的建筑手册 (2016) 于8月23日发行。

Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image Courtesy of Princeton Architectural Press
Manual of Section by Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis published by Princeton Architectural Press (2016). Image Courtesy of Princeton Architectural Press

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引用: Chatel, Marie. "从“剖面手册”学习:最吸引人的建筑图纸" [Studying the "Manual of Section": Architecture's Most Intriguing Drawing] 20 8月 2016. ArchDaily. (Trans. 张泽菲) Accesed . <https://www.archdaily.cn/cn/793646/cong-pou-mian-shou-ce-xue-xi-zui-xi-yin-ren-de-jian-zhu-tu-zhi>

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