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  3. 聚焦:丹下健三

聚焦:丹下健三

聚焦:丹下健三
聚焦:丹下健三, St. Mary Cathedral. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/9160678@N06/1351951533'>Flickr user scarletgreen</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a>
St. Mary Cathedral. Image © Flickr user scarletgreen licensed under CC BY 2.0

作为使得日本在建筑界大放异彩的一众老一辈建筑师之一,普利兹克奖得主丹下健三(Kenzō Tange,4 September 1913 – 22 March 2005)二战后奠基了日本的现代主义建筑道路。尽管他本职是一名建筑师,丹下健三在城市规划方面的造诣使得他在日本乃至全世界的大小项目中都具有重要影响力。

Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium. Image © Tange Associates Yoyogi National Gymnasium. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/kanegen/3076874395/'>Flickr user kanegan</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Shizuoka Press and Broadcasting Center. Image © <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shizuoka_Press_and_Broadcasting_Center._Ginza,_Tokyo..jpg'>Wikimedia user Jonathan Savoie</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY 3.0</a> Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/iqremix/16797848464/'>Flickr user iqremix</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/'>CC BY-SA 2.0</a> + 13

© Hans van Dijk / Anefo <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kenzo_Tange_1981.jpg'>via Wikimedia</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/nl/deed.en'>CC BY-SA 3.0 NL</a>
© Hans van Dijk / Anefo via Wikimedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 NL

在广岛念中学期间,在一本外国艺术期刊中柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)作品的潜在感染下,丹下健三选择走上建筑师的职业道路。一些课程上不太理想的成绩使得他花费了两年准备大学入学考试,在此期间他开始研读西方哲学文献。1935年,丹下健三最终被东京大学建筑系录取。

Hiroshima Peace Center and Memorial Park. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/iv4quad/26866534563'>Flickr user iv4quad</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a>
Hiroshima Peace Center and Memorial Park. Image © Flickr user iv4quad licensed under CC BY 2.0
Hiroshima Peace Center and Memorial Park. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/iv4quad/26864865744'>Flickr user iv4quad</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a>
Hiroshima Peace Center and Memorial Park. Image © Flickr user iv4quad licensed under CC BY 2.0

二战后,丹下健三从城市规划入手参与广岛的重建。而1949年广岛和平纪念公园设计的入选为他赢得了国际知名度。上世纪五十年代,丹下健三于东京大学任教期间培养了一众二十世纪杰出的日本建筑师,例如黑川纪章(Kisho Kurokawa),槙文彦(Fumihiko Maki),大谷幸夫(Sachio Otani)和矶崎新(Arata Isozaki)。

Shizuoka Press and Broadcasting Center. Image © <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shizuoka_Press_and_Broadcasting_Center._Ginza,_Tokyo..jpg'>Wikimedia user Jonathan Savoie</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY 3.0</a>
Shizuoka Press and Broadcasting Center. Image © Wikimedia user Jonathan Savoie licensed under CC BY 3.0

整个五十年代时期,丹下健三在城市规划方面持续投入研究和理论,并在1951和1959年参加了国际现代建筑协会(CongrèsInternationaux d'Architecture Moderne)的会议。后期会议中对菊竹清训(Kiyonori Kikutaki)作品的展示影响了协会中团体Team10的思想。一年后,丹下健三在“1960东京规划”中大量未实现的遍布东京海湾的建筑物则对日本建筑代谢运动产生了深刻影响。丹下健三是代谢运动的强力支持者。这项运动的发起人菊竹清训以及丹下的学生黑川纪章和槙文彦,以1970年大阪世博会总规划而著名,其中菊竹清训和黑川纪章设计了一系列基于代谢运动宣言的著名场馆。

Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium. Image © Tange Associates
Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium. Image © Tange Associates

尽管丹下健三是一名现代主义建筑师,日本的历史和文化也是他灵感的来源之一,这一点在其对国立代代木体育馆和圣玛丽教堂的设计中可见一斑。丹下健三曾说:“建筑必须具有一些引人共鸣的特点,但建筑的基本形态,空间和外表也必是有逻辑的。创意作品在我们这个时代表现为一种科技和人文相结合的形态。传统在其中扮演的角色是催化剂,它促成某种化学反应且不能在成果中被识别。传统毫无疑问可参与创作,但它自身将不再能成为一种创意。”

Yoyogi National Gymnasium. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/kanegen/3076874395/'>Flickr user kanegan</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a>
Yoyogi National Gymnasium. Image © Flickr user kanegan licensed under CC BY 2.0

查看下方图片,了解ArchDaily上所有丹下健三作品,以及下方的项目视频:

St. Mary Cathedral. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/9160678@N06/1351951533'>Flickr user scarletgreen</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium. Image © Tange Associates St. Mary Cathedral. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/9160678@N06/1351952355'>Flickr user scarletgreen</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Yoyogi National Gymnasium. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/kanegen/3076874395/'>Flickr user kanegan</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Yoyogi National Gymnasium. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/tina_tokyo/11729170186'>Flickr user tina_tokyo</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Shizuoka Press and Broadcasting Center. Image © <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shizuoka_Press_and_Broadcasting_Center._Ginza,_Tokyo..jpg'>Wikimedia user Jonathan Savoie</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY 3.0</a> Hiroshima Peace Center and Memorial Park. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/iv4quad/26864865744'>Flickr user iv4quad</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Shizuoka Press and Broadcasting Center. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/damongarrett/3274784710'>Flickr user damongarrett</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Hiroshima Peace Center and Memorial Park. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/iv4quad/26866534563'>Flickr user iv4quad</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> + 13

"Classic Japan" Episode 1: Yoyogi National Gymnasium / Kenzo Tange

参考文献:普利兹克维基百科

翻译:张紫峣

关于这位作者
引用: AD Editorial Team. "聚焦:丹下健三" [Spotlight: Kenzō Tange] 12 9月 2019. ArchDaily. (Trans. 张泽菲) Accesed . <https://www.archdaily.cn/cn/794674/ju-jiao-dan-xia-jian-san>

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